Introduction routes of drug administration pdf

The primary route of administration for cocaine powder is through inhalation, commonly referred to as snorting. Rapid injections are used to treat epileptic seizures, acute asthma, or cardiac arrhythmias. Routes of drug administration advantages and disadvantages. Drugs are introduced into the body by several routes. The book discusses the anatomy and physiology of administration sites. Routes of administration an overview sciencedirect topics. Mcq 1 general introduction and pharmacokinetics 300884. It provides rapid delivery across the mucous membranes of the respirateory tract. Administration via this route is less desirable for drugs that are irritating to the gi tract. For small therapeutic molecules, various routes for drug administration are parenteral intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous, oral, nasal, ocular, transmucosal buccal, vaginal, and rectal, and transdermal. Intravenous administration merits bypass first pass metabolism100% quick onset of action in uncooperative and unconscious patients those with nausea and vomiting hypertonic solutions and irritants large volumes amount of drug can be controlled accurately demerits antiseptic conditions. A route of drug administration is the path by which a drug or other substance is brought into contact with the body. Routes of administration and dosage forms pharmacology.

In general, drug absorption into the eye is limited and generally, less than 10% of the administered drug reaches the posterior segment of the eye. Introduction to pharmacology, and routes of drugs administration. Once the drug has been determined to be safe, effective and a significant costbenefit it may be produced, marketed and distributed to the public. Though the mechanisms of action of drugs delivered by these routes.

Alternative routes of drug administration transdermal. Drug kinetics pharmacokinetics describes how the body handles a drug and accounts for the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Different routes of administration may be used to achieve either systemic or local delivery of proteins and peptides. To obtain a general effect, the drug is usually given by oral or parenteral route. It involves the clients health, healing and safety. When administering a drug, the nurse should ensure that the pharmaceutical preparation is appropriate for the route specified. Drug administration an overview sciencedirect topics. The intramuscular route is preferred to the subcutaneous route when larger volumes of a drug product are needed. Drugs that produce a change in the cell functioning are called agonists. Drug administration often the goal is to attain a therapeutic drug concentration in plasma from which drug enters the tissue therapeutic window between toxic concentration and minimal effective concentration. Drug administration via the intramuscular im and subcutaneous sc routes is easily performed and provides relatively rapid 5 to 20 minutes onset of effect and a longer duration of effects see figure 188, a. Care should be taken to avoid needlestick injuries, which may transmit infections, e. The laboratory mouse handbook of experimental animals. The route of administration is largely dependent on the property of the test substance and the objective of.

Know the different drug administration routes as oral, rectal, parenteral, inhalation, dermal and mucosal. Medication administration lecture notes flashcards quizlet. Pharmaceutics dosage forms and routes of drug administration. Advantages safe convenient self administered, pain free, noninvasive and easy to take economical compared to other parentral routes usually good absorption takes place along the whole length of the gi tract no need for sterilization 6. Introduction to pharmacology and sources of drugs authorstream presentation. In general, drugs can be administered via two primary routes. Choose from 500 different sets of introduction to medication administration flashcards on quizlet. Read the label of the drug carefully before administering a drug to the patient. In australia, the authority that makes the overruling decision is the therapeutic goods administration tga. A route of administration in pharmacy is the path by which a drug is taken into the body. Transdermal drug delivery systems tdds have generated extensive interest as a preferred alternative to oral drug delivery and hypodermic injections, ever since the first scopolamine transdermal patch for motion sickness was approved by the us food and drug administration in 1979 1. A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Ocular drug delivery is one of the most challenging administration routes, due to the eyes unique anatomy and physiology.

Phar 7633 chapter 7 routes of drug administration oral po oral administration will be covered in more detail in subsequent chapters. Routes of drug administration 1st edition elsevier. Introduction to administration and kinetics of drugs drugs. Routes of medication administration there are several different ways drugs can be administered. Oral administration 2 overview the most commonly used routes for administering treatments to dairy cows are intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intramammary, topical and oral.

Drug administration explore from the msd manuals medical consumer version. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Intradermal or intracutaneous into the dermal layer of the skin. Topical administration to mucous membranes or skin. Table 11 lists various routes and locations of delivery of parenteral administration. This time delay is important, oral route has controlled release time, thus depot or reservoir preparation may be made e. It will provide you a complete journey through the routes of drug.

Drug administration is the giving of a drug by one of several means routes. Understand the physiology behind the gastrointestinal tract and the route of oral drug administration and physiological influences on pharmacodynamics. This chapter will begin by considering various routes of administration. Identify sample pharmaceutical agents as to dosage form and. Learn introduction to medication administration with free interactive flashcards. Introduction to pharmacokinetics drug administration and. Dec 19, 2018 route of drug administration is the medium in which any drug is introduced into the body for its action. This echapter has an introduction to pharmacology and drug nomenclature followed by a detailed discussion of routes of administration starting with oral administration with absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, and first pass liver metabolism. Drugs are usually injected into the muscle of the upper arm, thigh, or buttock. Use these tools to check your understanding before. Routes of drug administration covers topics about parenteral and enteral routes of drug administration. The 10th usjapan symposium on drug delivery systems fda center for drug evaluation and research data standards manual. So well route of administration can be said as the pharmacological or toxicological entity is the path by which a drug or medicine is taken into the body.

The oral route shows some limitations for drugs with irregular absorption in the. Examples include poultices, plasters, creams and ointments. The first step in pharmacokinetics is the administration and absorption of drugs. The definition of the topical route of administration sometimes states that both the. Informational competencies authorized direct care staff must know. A description of the drug and the administration procedure including benefits, side effects and lifethreatening risks. Camille harris, in manual of exotic pet practice, 2009. Routes of drug administration authorstream presentation. Phar 7633 chapter 7 routes of drug administration intravenous iv drugs may be given into a peripheral vein over 1 to 2 minutes or longer by infusion.

Drug and patientrelated factors determine the selection of routes for drug administration. Mar 17, 2017 this echapter has an introduction to pharmacology and drug nomenclature followed by a detailed discussion of routes of administration starting with oral administration with absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, and first pass liver metabolism. Drug administration drugs merck manuals consumer version. Route of drug administration is the medium in which any drug is introduced into the body for its action. Inhalation administration involves inhaling of a drug in gas or liquid form.

Each route has several variations, and each offers distinct advantages and disadvantages. Given by injection into a vein intravenously, iv, into a muscle. The duration of action for various routes of drug administration is differ because the difference of rate of absorption of drug, amount of drug which been absorbed into the blood plasma and difference rate of metabolism and elimination of drug through the various of drug administration. Muir iii, in handbook of veterinary pain management third edition, 2015. The key features of various routes are discussed here see table 21.

Intraocular drug administration an overview sciencedirect. When the drug is rubbed into the skin, it is known as epidermic route. Pdf systemic absorption of a drug depends on its physicochemical. In fact, by definition, bioavailability of drugs is 100% by iv injection because the. Oral route the most common route of drug administration. This is followed by a discussion of rectal, sublingual and injection routes of. Introduction to pharmacology, and routes of drugs administration and absorption. Routes of medication administration oral route also called per oral in this route as the name indicates drug is taken by mouth. Summary this echapter has an introduction to pharmacology and drug nomenclature followed by a detailed discussion of routes of administration starting with oral administration with absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, and first pass liver metabolism. Ppt pdf 10 routes of drug administration how are drugs administered. Various routes of administrations play a marked role in the bioavailability of the active drug in the body. There are various methods existing that a drug can be administered to be a patient or a needy in present scenario 5,1025. Introduction drug administration is very important and can be a dangerous duty given correctly restore patient to health given incorrectly patients condition can worsen medical assistant must understand principles of pharmacology understand fundamentals of drug administration routes. Purchase routes of drug administration 1st edition.

A drug given parenterally is one given by a route other than the mouth topical dosage forms are considered separately. Because the muscles lie below the skin and fatty tissues, a longer needle is used. Emergency or the impossibility of intake by mouth makes the parenteral route. This article deals with the salient features, advantages and disadvantages of some of the alternative routes of drug administration transdermal, pulmonary and parenteral routes. Drug administration drugs msd manual consumer version. Most of the drugs can be administered by different routes. Drug delivery characteristics and pharmacodynamic properties vary depending on the route of administration chosen for the drug. Different routes of drug administration know the different drug administration routes as oral, rectal, parenteral, inhalation, dermal and mucosal. Drugs that stop a normal function of the cell are called antagonists. Route of drug administration with selection parameters in. Understand the dynamics and functions of the major signal transduction systems and their different biomedi. First video in a new series in drugs and human behavior this video describes routes of administration and differences in absorption and distribution of drugs based on those routes. Parenteral preparations circumvent the intestinal tract and, therefore, are not subject to pharmacodynamic properties associated with oral or other formulations.

Check your understanding of the methods of drug administration in this quiz and worksheet combo. Dosage form design may also be used modify the rate of absorption. It is generally agreed that the more quickly a drug is delivered to the brain, the more likely it will lead to dependence. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is. The chemical structure and nature of a drug may determine which route of administration can be used for. Routes of the administration according to the data standards manual monographs.

Introduction to administration and kinetics of drugs. Strict aseptic precautions should be taken while giving injections. In this route of administration the drug is given into the muscles with the help of injection. When the drug is applied to the outer skin, it is called enepidermic route of drug administration. Administration of drugs by injection and other routes. Injection administration of drugs page 5 of 9 march 16, 2020 prior to administering a drug, the process of informed consent shall consist of a discussion between the patient and the pharmacist which includes. Pick out the parenteral route of medicinal agent administration. Administration of medication requires thorough understanding the drug, including.

The three main parenteral routes of drug administration are iv, im, and sc, and in all cases administration is usually via a hollow needle. Once the drug is bound to a protein it exerts a therapeutic effect on the body, this is the pharmacodynamics of a drug. Consequently, the routes of injecting and smoking which deliver drugs relatively quickly are considered more addictive than the routes of snorting insufflation or swallowing, which deliver the drugs more slowly. Section 1 basic medication administration information. The route of administration is the way through which the dosage form is administered into the body for treatment of various diseases and disorders. Drug once reaches to the muscles, absorbs into the blood. Youre probably familiar with injections and pills that you swallow, but medications can be given. Very rapid absorption of drugs in aqueous solution 2. A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid. Evaluation of skin absorption of drugs from topical and.

This standard provides for all routes of administration for drugs. Condition of the patient unconscious, vomiting, diarrhoea. Ankur choudhary print question forum no comments routes of administration of a drug are determined by its physical and chemical properties, patient characteristics and the rapidity of response desired. Int to ceutics free download as powerpoint presentation.

Introduction national institute on drug abuse nida. It is most often seen in the form of a white, crystalline powder. Introduction to pharmacodynamics reza karimi object i ves 1. As of 2014, nearly 27 million americans were current users of illicit drugs, and almost 67 million americans were current users of tobacco products. Routes of drug administration refer to the right path or the required route through which a drug has to be administered into the body to obtain. Absorption after oral administration can be quite variable. Administering a drug through the iv route involves the introduction of a. Ankur choudhary print question forum no comments routes of administration of a drug are determined by its physical and chemical properties, patient characteristics and the rapidity of response. The rate of absorption can vary markedly, depending on the physical characteristics of the drug lipid soluble and skin at the site of application.

Figure 11 illustrates the locations utilized in intravenous, intradermal, intramuscular, and subcutaneous parenteral 2 chapter 1 introduction to parenteral preparations. Giving medication is not hard, but there are some things that you need to know in order to do it safely. Finally, it is critical to know how the body metabolizes and eliminates a drug so that you can be aware of problems that might arise if drug metabolism is altered by illness, disease, or other factors. The drug in the form of a solid pellet is introduced with a trochar and cannula. The administration of drugs by through the skin is also performed to achieve controlled or prolonged drug delivery, and this route can be explored as an alternative to the oral route. Start studying medication administration lecture notes. Route of administration shall consist of an alphabetic term which has a maximum length. This route is used for gaseous drugs or those that can be dispersed in an aerosol, and is produces an effect almost as fast as with iv. Sep 06, 2014 oral route the most common route of drug administration. This route of administration achieves systemic effects by application of drugs to the skin, usually via a transdermal medicated adhesive patch. Time of action using different routes of administration drugs take different time durations after injection using different routes to perform their actions. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

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