Nucleic acid aptamers have been developed for various applications, including diagnostics, molecular imaging, biomarker discovery, target validation, therapeutics, and drug delivery. The timeline for the development of aptamers as commercial therapeutics is comparable to the generation of antibodybased drugs. In addition, the identified sequence in this work has lot of potential in oligonucleotide based cancer therapeutics and diagnostic applications. However, the key advantages of aptamers over antibodies coupled with niche market needs that only aptamers can fill and more recent published data still point to a bright commercial future for aptamers in areas such as infectious disease and cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Tolllike receptor 4 tlr4 is a key player in the adaptive immune response. Rusconi 1 1 department of surgery, center for genetic and cellular therapies, and. Wendel 1, 1 department of thoracic, cardiac and vascular surgery, university hospital tuebingen, calwerstr. Aptamers, by themselves, are not necessarily effective therapeutics.
They are large enough so that they can tightly and specifically bind to biopolymer targets and, in comparison with conventional drugs, it seems more difficult to develop resistance against them. School of medicine, deakin university, pigdons road, waurn ponds, victoria 3216, australia 2. Biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry, contract research organization, academic and research institutions. Request pdf aptamers as therapeutics aptamers are singlestranded nucleic acid molecules that bind to and inhibit proteins and are commonly produced by systematic evolution of ligands. Review nucleic acid aptamer guided cancer therapeutics. Aptamers have applied in diverse valuable fields of life sciences, for example, they have been developed as new drug, diagnostic and a bioimaging agent, drug delivery agent, analytical. They can block their target function, and, if internalizing aptamers are selected, they can prove to be much more effective as therapeutics through the direct conjugation of drugs or attaching nanoparticles as drug delivery devices. Therefore overshadowing antibodies in clinics is in the far future. Aptamers have the advantage of being highly specific, relatively small in size, nonimmunogenic and can be easily stabilized by chemical modifications, thus allowing expansion. Aptamer applications aptamers have demonstrated some interesting advantages in a number of assays and analysis methods that have traditionally utilized monoclonal antibodies.
In order to allow aptamers to be widely adapted as therapeutics, there exists a need for effective antidotes. It is involved in several pathologies including stroke, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, sepsis, multiple sclerosis, and chronic pain. Aptamerrelated technologies represent a revolutionary advancement in the capacity to rapidly develop new classes of targeting ligands. Recent developments in aptamer based therapeutics have been rewarded in the form of the first aptamer based drug approved by the u. Antitranscription factor rna aptamers as potential therapeutics estefan. Aptamers as therapeutics in cardiovascular diseases bentham.
Predicting the uncertain future of aptamerbased diagnostics. Molecular aptamers for drug delivery weihong tan university of. Aptamers in the therapeutics and diagnostics pipelines. Nucleic acid aptamers, dnabased aptamers, rnabased aptamers, xnabased aptamers, peptide aptamers. Aptamers are singlestranded nucleic acids that specifically recognize and bind tightly to their cognate targets due to their stable threedimensional structure. Aptamers market latest research pdf by marketresearch. Therapeutic applications of nucleic acid aptamers in.
Dna aptamers for the malignant transformation marker cd24. Antitranscription factor rna aptamers as potential. In literature we can find large number of aptamers specific against wide variety of targets 6. Aptamers are less likely to provoke undesirable immune responses than antibodies. Aptamerirnas as therapeutics for cancer treatment mdpi. Aptamerbased biosensors shiping song, lihua wang, jiang li, jianlong zhao, chunhai fan nucleicacid aptamers have attracted intense interest and found wide applications in a range of areas.
To gain an insight on cd24 role and its interaction partners, we performed several selex systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment experiments to select cd24specfiic dna aptamers. Clinical applications of aptamers and nucleic acid. Pdf nucleic acid aptamers can be selected from pools of randomsequence oligonucleotides to bind a wide range of biomedically relevant. In 1986, the first monoclonal antibody was approved by the fda for. Several aptamers that have shown promise as cancer therapeutics are discussed below. There are many applications that use aptamers together with ph. Pdf aptamers are short singlestranded dna or rna oligonucleotides that can selectively bind to small molecular ligands or protein targets. Structurally distinct rna and dna oligonucleotides, aptamers mimic small, proteinbinding molecules and exhibit high binding affinity and selectivity. Aptamers as therapeutics under investigation in oncology the main strategy of aptamerbased therapeutics in oncology application is a blockade of proteinprotein or receptorligand interactions as. Abhishek parashar, aptamers in therapeutics journal of clinical and diagnostic research. They are more robust at elevated temperatures and thermal denaturation is reversible. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or. Although their molecular weight is relatively smallapproximately onetenth that of monoclonal antibodies.
Aptamers are short singlestranded dna or rna oligonucleotides that can selectively bind to small molecular ligands or protein targets with high affinity and specificity, by acquiring unique threedimensional structures. In last few years aptamers have been widely used in therapeutics. Jul 01, 2018 another main reason for the aptamer bottleneck in diagnostics and therapeutics is the huge biotech industrys financial investment in the wellestablished antibody and humanized monoclonal antibody research, development and manufacturing processes, making these industries relatively reluctant to invest capital in new technology such as aptamers. In addition, aptamers can block the function of target proteins and as a result, they are promising candidates to develop new therapeutics for infections. Factors responsible for growth are the growing acceptance of emerging aptamer technologies, rising incidence of chronic diseases, and increasing demand for aptamerbased therapeutics in european countries.
Aptamers as valuable molecular tools in neurosciences. Application of aptamers in therapeutics the first selex experiment was carried out by tuerk and gold in 1990, when they selected rna aptamer against bacteriophage t4 dna polymerase 1. Pdf developing aptamers into therapeutics rebekah white. Aptamer binding has been used effectively for diagnostics, invivo targeting of therapeutics, and the construction and control of nanomachines. Aptamers undergo extensive pharmacological revision, which alters affinity, specificity, and therapeutic halflife, tailoring each drug for a specific clinical need.
Aptamers could be massively synthesized using in vitro techniques. Antitranscription factor rna aptamers as potential therapeutics estefana mondrago. These proteins control all major cellular processes, including growth, development, and homeostasis. A plethora of positive attributes such as high affinity and specificity make aptamers superior to antibodies and engenders a rise in their demand for different medical applications. Use of aptamers as diagnostics tools and antiviral agents for human viruses victor m. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Aptamers are singlestranded nucleic acid molecules that bind to and inhibit proteins and.
Due to their high specificity and binding affinity. Be01be06 5 5 effect and transportation of aptamers to inside the cell which. Rusconi 1 1 department of surgery, center for genetic and cellular therapies, and 2 department of genetics, center for genetic and cellular therapies, duke university medical center, durham, north carolina, usa. Aptamerbased diagnostics and therapeutics article pdf available in pharmaceuticals 121. As more researchers and entrepreneurs become familiar with aptamers, it. Aptamers in the therapeutics and diagnostics pipelines harleen kaur1, john g. Aptamerbased therapeutics typically exploit one of three strategies. Kouzani3,shufeng zhou4, lingxue kong5, yong li6, chunwen pu7, and wei duan1 1. Being nucleic acids, aptamers can be synthesized chemically or. Global aptamers market by region, 2016 % europe is expected to be at the forefront and evolve rapidly over the coming years.
Aptamers surely possess advantages over current monoclonal antibodies. A universal antidote for aptamer therapeutics duke olv. Antitranscription factor rna aptamers as potential therapeutics. Aptamers are short nucleic acids that interact with a variety of targets with high affinity and specificity. Pegylation is a common modulator of pharmacokinetics for therapeutic agents in vivo. Jun 01, 2016 aptamers could be massively synthesized using in vitro techniques. Rusconi 1 1 department of surgery, center for genetic and cellular therapies, and 2 department of genetics, center for genetic and cellular therapies, duke.
Food and drug administration fda in treatment for agerelated macular degeneration amd, called macugen offered by osi pharmaceuticals. Operational technologies corporation, 4100 nw loop 410, suite 100, san antonio, texas 78229, usa. Diagnostics, therapeutics, research and development. But currently aptamer research is still underdeveloped. Aptamers are singlestranded nucleic acid molecules that bind to and inhibit proteins and are commonly produced by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment selex. Nucleolin ironically, the first aptamer to enter clinical trials for cancer therapy was not generated by selex but was discovered serendipitously based on its ability to be taken up by cancer cells 54. Nanostructures that respond to ph by releasing or changing affinity to a target have also been used for in vivo delivery, and in the construction of sensors and reusable nanomachines. Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid dna or rna or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibodyantigen interactions. Use of aptamers as diagnostics tools and antiviral agents. Novel perspectives of aptamerbased therapeutics ketai guo 1, angela paul 1, christian schichor 2, gerhard ziemer 1 and hans p. From a wide point of view, nucleic acidbased therapeutics, particularly rnabased treatments, have important challenges to. With continued effort in the development of aptamerbased therapeutics, aptamers will find their niches in cardiovascular diseases and significantly impact clinical patient management.
Nucleic acid aptamer guided cancer therapeutics and diagnostics. Therapeutics through aptamer group s therapeutics division aptarx, aptamers can be developed as lead molecules for therapeutic intervention against a range of targets. Mar 08, 2017 aptamers are short nucleic acids that interact with a variety of targets with high affinity and specificity. An important aspect of aptamers is the commercial feasibility of manufacturing. In 1986, the first monoclonal antibody was approved by the fda for therapeutically application the second one in 1994.
Aptamers, also termed as decoys or chemical antibodies, represent an emerging class of therapeutics. The development of sirnas, antisense oligonucleotides, aptamers, sgrnas, mirnas and other nucleic acid modalities as therapeutics increases the need for support in discovery, preclinical development and expert manufacturing capabilities from benchtop to clinic. Another main reason for the aptamer bottleneck in diagnostics and therapeutics is the huge biotech industrys financial investment in the wellestablished antibody and humanized monoclonal antibody research, development and manufacturing processes, making these industries relatively reluctant to invest capital in new technology such as aptamers. In some cases and as opposed to antisense oligonucleotides, effects can be mediated against extracellular. Aptamers in therapeutics europe pmc article europe pmc. Aptamers are oligonucleotide sequences that are capable of recognizing target proteins with an affinity and specificity rivalling that of antibodies. Clinical applications of aptamers and nucleic acid therapeutics in. Aptamers as therapeuticsaptamers as therapeutics surender kumar p1688 3. To pegylate or not to pegylate therapeutics cell chemical. Aptamers have interesting properties in comparison with both protein therapeutics, such as antibodies, and small organic drugs. Use of aptamers as diagnostics tools and antiviral agents for. Discovery and development of anticancer aptamers molecular.
They have been shown to inhibit biological functions of cognate target proteins, and they are identifiable by an in vitro selection process, also termed selex systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Aptamers bind specific ligands with high affinity and selectivity. Drug discovery and biomanufacturing sheldon high school teacher. We found that the cellselex approach was the most useful and that using ht29 cell line presenting cd24 along with cd24 knockdown ht29 cells has. Aptamers that bind to the cell surface can specifically cause therapeutics such as drugs, toxins or sirna to persist in the vicinity of a specific cell or. These can be used either as monotherapeutics, in conjunction with current chemotherapy regimens, or in combination with each other to improve therapeutic ef. Aptamers market size, share global industry trend report. Aptamers that bind to the cell surface can specifically cause therapeutics such as drugs, toxins or sirna to persist in the vicinity of a. Pdf aptamers in the therapeutics and diagnostics pipelines. There are several avenues for exploitation of aptamers as therapeutics. In 1975, the first monoclonal antibodies were generated. From diagnostics to food safety to therapeutics, aptamers are being used to solve unique challenges in a growing number of fields. Not only can these nucleic acidbased therapies silence target genes, they also have the potential of restoring gene function. The ability of aptamers to reversibly bind molecules such as proteins has generated increasing interest in using them to facilitate controlled release of therapeutic biomolecules, such as growth factors.489 205 293 149 250 1397 116 263 1426 465 768 427 915 1064 457 1272 793 94 927 134 435 997 1499 124 126 1459 1510 88 1039 63 54 56 1466 1418